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Extra info for The Phonological Interpretation of Ancient Greek: A Pandialectal Analysis
Figure 1-2. Convergence and divergence in the history of Greek dialects. 1 The Vowels of Classical Attic The phonological system of Classical Attic vowels can be established on the basis of the following commutation tests: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) front - back low - non-low and high - non-high round - non-round half-close - half-open short - long Examples are mainly taken from Lupas (1972:126-31): (a) e - o A¿x°S 'bed' e - o AuTieuv 'be pained' (Inf) - \o\oc 'ambush1 - AUÏÏOÛV (Part Neuter) ë - 5 aAAnv 'other' (Ace Sg Fem)-aAAoov (Gen PI) > » i - u iitaTbs 'faith' - ituaiLS 'inquiring' ï - ü ynvüu) _ _ — ë - a vunns 'be wroth against' - ynvüoo f _ 'victory' (Gen Sg) - vuxas (b) a - e (puAaxac; ' guards' (Ace PI) 'reveal' (Ace PI) - cpuAaxeç (Norn PI) i - e A u d n T u 'loose' - A \5drn e (2nd PI Imp (2nd Sg Imp Aor Pass)Aor Pass) ï - ë vüxn 'victory1 - veuxn 'quarrels' (PI) u - o TUXOS 'mason's hammer' - TOKOS 'childbirth' û - 5 vOv 'now' - vouv 'mind' (Ace Sg) (c) o - a Auoopevos (Part Fut Middle) - Auaayevoç (Part Aor Middle) 33 o - a VLKÜÜV Vowels 'conquer' (Part) - vuxav (Inf) (d) 5 - ë c p u A e L i e ' l o v e ' (2nd PI Ind)- c p u A n T e (2nd PI Subj) 5 - 5 x p u t f o u y e v ' g i l d ' (1st PI - xpuaftyev (1st PI Subj) Ind) (e) a - à AuTinpá 'painful' (PI Neuter)- Auiinpa (Sg Fern) e - | AUETE (2nd PI Ind) 2nd - Au'nie e - ë è'xoyev 'have' (1st PI Près) - eu'xoyev (1st PI Impf) i - i uHeieúoyev 'supplicate* (1st PI Près) - Lxeieuoyev (1st PI Impf) o - O HC¿MO'S ' b a d ' (Adj) - xaHcos (Adv) 0 - 5 Adyos 'word' (Nom S g ) - A o y o u c (Ace PI) u - u u$pb£oyev 'be insolent' (1st Pl Près) - üBpu'coyev (1st Pl Impf) For the purpose of interdialectal comparison Classical Attic vowels will be presented by means of the traditional pseudoarticulatory diagram in Figure 2-1.
Pamphylian is poorly recorded and the only major inscription does not suffice to decide the matter. In Arcado-Cypriot (but there is some evidence even from Pamphylian and Lesbian) short mid vowels in certain positions are raised /e,o/ ^/i,u/: i) /e/ before a dental nasal (even elsewhere but the evidence is scanty) Arcadian Cv 'in* (= èv), ûvôuxos 'right' (= evounos) yuvovaau 'remaining' (= Cypriot uvaAuvo) 'write upon' ii) final /o/, and /o/ before a labial nasal Arcadian ÔÏÏD [hopu] 'under' (= ÛÏÏQ [hupo]) èyayavTU 'got married' (= 'similar' (= Cypriot yevouTU 'happen' (= Other most notable characteristics of Arcado-Cypriot are dative constructions of prepositions anu and e£ (elsewhere àïïo and e£ + Genitive) and some special lexical items like Has 'and' (elsewhere nau), ÏÏQS 'near by' (elsewhere Ttpo's) , etc.
Long diphthong /oi/. On the other hand, the opposition TtoTayou 'rivers' (PI Norn) vs. Ttoiayto (Dat Sg) may be interpreted as a diphthong accented on the second segment /oí/ vs. diphthong accented on the first segment /oi/. Figure 2-10. Short and long diphthongs in accented syllables. diphthong (in a final accented syllable) long short diphthong (in a penultimate accented syllable) long short eu eu eu eu eu diphthongs (in an antepenultimate accented syllable) short eu long eu 44 Phonological Interpretation of Ancient Greek According to Allen (1974:80) long diphthongs in the environment before a vowel are to be evaluated not as diphthongs but simply as sequences of long vowel + palatal or velar glide, thus /ai/ = /a/ + /j/.