By Shun-ichiro Karato

A lot of the hot growth within the strong earth sciences is predicated on interpretation of a variety of geophysical and geological observations by way of the houses and deformation of earth fabrics. This graduate textbook offers a entire, unified therapy of the fabrics technological know-how of deformation as utilized to reliable earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth fabrics is gifted in a scientific approach masking elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. complex discussions on present debates also are integrated to convey readers to the state-of-the-art of technological know-how during this interdisciplinary zone. This textbook is perfect for graduate classes at the rheology and dynamics of strong Earth, and contains evaluation questions with strategies so readers can video display their figuring out of the fabric provided. it's also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in lots of fields together with geology, geophysics, geochemistry, fabrics technology, mineralogy and ceramics.

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**Sample text**

Similarly for point defects, most of them are also isotropic and are not associated with deviatoric strain so that they do not interact with deviatoric stress (exceptions are defect complexes, which can have anisotropic strain field and interact with shear stress causing anelasticity; see Chapter 11). Consequently applied stress provides no direct driving forces for atomic species. , point defects) under deviatoric stress is the thermodynamic force, X ¼ Àrð=TÞ ¼ ÀRðrc=cÞ, caused by the heterogeneity of defect concentration due to the heterogeneous microstructure of a polycrystalline material (see Chapter 8).

Thermodynamics 31 From the above discussion, two methods of generalization of the above linear relationship are obvious. First, Fick’s law describes the flux of atoms due to the concentration gradient, but more generally, atomic flux due to the gradient of chemical potential X ¼ Àrð=TÞ can be considered. The chemical potential may include not only the gradient of concentration (gradient of configurational entropy) but also the gradient of free energy due to other effects such as electrostatic field.

71) are redundant if the stress dependence of concentration is included in the activity term because in this case, the driving force is a thermodynamic driving force, rð=TÞ ¼ Rr log a, caused by the grain-scale variation in stress, and is given by rð=TÞ ¼ Rr log a ¼ ÀðO=TÞ Á ð=LÞ % ÀðO=TÞÁ r ða ¼ a0 expðÀ O=RTÞÞ. 3. Stationary (steady-state) state: the principle of minimum entropy production rate The flow of materials (or energy) causes entropy production (energy dissipation). The rate of local entropy production is given by dS X i i X i È JX ¼ J Á ri : ¼ dt i i È¼ X Lij Xi Xj (2:73) i;j where we used the Onsager reciprocal relation.