Contemporary Topics in Molecular Immunology by David H. Sachs (auth.), H. N. Eisen, R. A. Reisfeld (eds.)

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By David H. Sachs (auth.), H. N. Eisen, R. A. Reisfeld (eds.)

Immunochemistry, lately rechristened molecular immunology, has been pre­ occupied all through its lengthy heritage with the constitution and serve as of antibodies and the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions. With the new X-ray diffrac­ of numerous crystallized immunoglobulin (Ig) fragments and an entire tion analyses Ig molecule, the three-d constitution of antibodies and their ligand­ combining websites has been learned, marking the concluding phases of a section of immunological learn that may be traced again at the very least seventy five years. while chemically minded immunologists were relocating in new instructions. a considerable starting in a single path has been made with the purification of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Ig chains. Hybridization of those RNAs (or their DNA copies made with the enzyme opposite transcriptase) to mobile DNA is starting to supply convincing estimates of the variety of germ-line Ig genes. and a few hybridization reviews have already yielded suggestive proof for translocation of V and C genes from separate to contiguous positions in DNA remoted from cells at varied levels of differentiation. in addition, in vitro trans­ lation of Ig mRNAs has published a remarkably hydrophobic stretch of approximately 20 amino acids on the N-terminus of the nascent Ig chain. this additional piece is absent within the Ig extracted from or secreted by way of plasma cells, most likely since it is quickly cleaved from the "preimmunoglobulin" chain in the mobilephone, however the additional piece most likely performs a key function in directing the synthesis of prelg to the cell's secretory pathway.

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Second, most K and D gene products possess at least one unique, or private, antigenic specificity and multiple common, or public, antigenic specificities (Shreffler and David, 1975; Klein, 1975) (Table II). , 1971). Third, the K and D genes exhibit extensive genetic polymorphism. Among the standard inbred strains of mice there are 11 alleles at the K locus and ten alleles at the D locus (Klein, 1974), resulting in more than 25 chromosomal combinations, or haplotypes, of the K and D alleles (Shreffler and David, 1975).

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