By N. A. Sanin

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**Sample text**

It was probably on this occasion that they made each other’s acquaintance, which soon developed into a devoted friendship. After his return to Berlin, Dirichlet saw to it that Liouville was elected a corresponding member6 of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin, and he sent a letter to Liouville suggesting that they should enter into a scientiﬁc correspondence ([L¨ u], p. ). Liouville willingly agreed; part of the correspondence was published later ([T]). Moreover, during the following years, Liouville saw to it that French translations of many of Dirichlet’s papers were published in his journal.

Associated with each form f is its group of automorphs containing all matrices αβ ∈ SL2 (Z) transforming f into itself. The really interesting quantity now is γ δ the number R(n, f ) of representations of n by f which are inequivalent with respect to the natural action of the group of automorphs. Then R(n, f ) turns out to be ﬁnite, but still there is no simple formula for this quantity. Deﬁne now f to be primitive if (a, b, c) = 1. Forms equivalent to primitive ones are primitive. Denote by f1 , .

1], p. 318). The crucial new tools enabling Dirichlet to prove his theorem are the L-series which nowadays bear his name. In the original work these series were introduced by means of suitable primitive roots and roots of unity, which are the values of the characters. g. [Lan], vol. I, p. 391 ﬀ. 2], p. ). For the sake of conciseness we use the modern language of characters: By deﬁnition, a Dirichlet character mod m is a homomorphism χ : (Z/mZ)× → S 1 , where (Z/mZ)× denotes the group of prime residue classes mod m and S 1 the unit circle in C.