By James L. Peterson and Werner Rheinboldt (Auth.)
Read or Download Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming PDF
Best languages & tools books
E-book by means of Lien, David A.
Ranging from the basis that figuring out the rules of concurrent programming is essential to constructing allotted computing structures, this e-book first provides the elemental theories of concurrent computing after which introduces the programming languages that support advance allotted computing structures at a excessive point of abstraction.
Extra info for Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming
Generally, each computer manufacturer provides a collection of I/O devices which are specifically designed for use with its particular line of computers. 6 Block diagram of computer system and peripheral devices. are mainly incompatible with the I/O system of other computers. However, with a suitable interface, almost any device can be attached to any computer. Thus, there is a growing number of independent vendors of I/O devices. These inde pendent manufacturers often design their devices so that they are plug-to-plug compatible with a popular computing system (such as the IBM 360/370 system, or the PDP-11).
Because of the end-around carry, the properties of negative zero are the same as the properties of positive zero, as far as arithmetic is concerned. For example, 307 (octal) + ( - 0 ) on a 10-bit word is 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 + 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 end-around carry = 307 (octal) But the hardware to test for zero must check for both representations of zero, making it more complicated. Two's complement notation To correct the problem of negative zero, two's complement arithmetic is used.
0. 101 x 24 = 1010 (base 2) = 10 (base 10). Since the original number was negative, the bit pattern given above represents - 1 0 (base 10). As another example, try 00111111110111100000000 . . 00 The sign is positive. The exponent is 01111111101 (base 2) = 1021 (base 10), which with a bias of 1024 gives a true exponent of —3. 111000. 0. 109375 (base 10). 111 x 2~3 as a floating point number. We could store it as 0. 0000000000111 x 27. Which representation do we use? All we are doing in the alternative definitions is introducing leading zeros.