By William H. Dantzler
This quantity emphasizes the comparative method of lower than status vertebrate renal functionality. i'm confident that this strategy is of specific price in knowing either the main points of renal functionality on the mobile and subcellular degrees and the renal function in regulating fluid volumes and solute concentrations. My publicity to this process first happened in the course of a scholar study adventure within the laboratory of Wilbur H. Sawyer, who additionally supplied an advent to the works of Homer W. Smith and August Krogh. the significance of this process was once strengthened via doctoral and postdoctoral examine within the laboratory of Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen. it's been proven via years of non-public event considering then. My learn and my realizing of renal functionality were aided over the years through collaboration and dialogue with quite a few scholars and colleagues. Of specific impor tance in constructing my perspectives on comparative renal functionality, and particularly at the dating of constitution to operate, has been my lengthy organization with my colleague and buddy, Eldon J. Braun. Donald S. Farner, who recommended the writing of this quantity, supplied invaluable editorial guidance. a lot of my own examine during this region has been supported through the years via delivers from the us nationwide technological know-how starting place and nationwide Institutes of overall healthiness. The writing of this quantity was once accomplished whereas i used to be in Wiirzburg, Federal Republic of Germany, supported via a Senior U.S. Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
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Extra info for Comparative Physiology of the Vertebrate Kidney
The values for the birds and some of the fishes were taken from the literature and converted to ml kg- 1 h- 1 . " Measurements of plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (A VT) were obtained simultaneously with these measurements of GFR. 3). The maintenance of a relatively high GFR with only the water obtained from an insect diet may relate to the continued absorption of filtered water in the bladder as well as to a low evaporative water loss (Shoemaker and Bickler 1979). 3). Among terrestrial and semi-aquatic reptiles, the response to a salt load or dehydration is particularly variable for the crocodilians and saurians.
7). The apparent changes in the number of filtering mammalian-type nephrons in the starling kidney may have direct effects on the operation of the concentrating process (vide infra; Chap. 7). In the avian kidney, the viability of the proximal and distal tubules of the nonfiltering mammalian-type nephrons as well as all portions of the nonfiltering reptilian-type nephrons can be maintained by the renal portal system. However, the renal portal system of birds differs from that of other nonmammalian vertebrates in having a unique smooth muscle valve at the juncture of the external iliac vein and the efferent renal vein that determines whether blood from the posterior extremities bypasses the kidney and flows directly into the central circulation (open valve) or flows first through the renal portal system and supplies the peri tubular sinuses (closed valve) (Sperber 1948).
The difference between these two opposing pressure gradients is the net ultrafiltration pressure. The hydraulic conductivity, Lp, or the "leakiness" of the capillaries to water, determines the rate of filtration per unit area of filtration surface for any given net ultrafiltration pressure. The rate of filtration will be directly proportional to both the hydraulic conductivity and the surface area available for filtration, A, as indicated in Eq. 1. Under steady-state conditions, if filtration equilibrium is reached (i.