By Simon Nicholas Madge, James Kersey, Matthew Hawker, Meon Lamont (eds.)
A realistic guide at the exam recommendations, apparatus, investigations and optical suggestions which the start trainee in ophthalmology must master.
- obtainable and finished advisor to the sensible abilities and ideas with which the trainee ophthalmologist should be familiar
- Clear tips on use of apparatus which takes trainees massive perform to grasp -- e.g. slit-lamps, ophthalmoscopes, phacoemulsification machines and injectable or foldable lenses
- Covers eye exam ideas and investigations comparable to visible fields and fluorescein angiography
- Very transparent and simply comprehensible part on medical optics, explaining innovations corresponding to ametropia
- Illustrated in color throughout
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Additional info for Clinical Techniques in Ophthalmology
Smith W, Mitchell P, Leeder SR, et al. Plasma f brinogen levels, other cardiovascular risk factors, and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ar ch Ophtha lm ol 1998;116:583–587. 41. Vingerling JR, Dielemans I, Bots ML, et al. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidem iol 1995;142:404–409. 42. Macular Photocoagulation Study Group. Laser photocoagulation for juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularization. Five-year results from randomized clinical trials.
The RPE65 gene was placed in a recombinant adeno-associated virus ( AAV) and injected subretinally into the fundus of a dog with RPE65 def ciency. There was electroretinographic improvement in treated animals and, importantly, evidence of 13 improved visual function using behavioral testing. Recently, AAV-RPE65 was shown to be safe after subretinal injections in nonhuman primates ( 22) . Specif cally, there were no abnormalities in ERG wave forms, or histopathologic evidence of toxicity such as loss of photoreceptor layer thickness.
Remarkably, lipofuscin can occupy up to 19% of the RPE cell by the time the patient is 80 years of age ( 7) . The RPE basal infoldings are fewer in number, and some RPE can be detached from the RPE basement membrane, due to the development of basal laminar deposits ( BlamD) or accumulations of heterogeneous material between the RPE and its basement membrane. With f at mount sections, the RPE cells appear hexagonal and more densely packed in the macula than in the periphery in young eyes, but they lose their hexagonal shape and resemble nonfoveal RPE with aging ( 8) .