By Clara B. Jones
Quite a few figures, illustrations, and tables; integration of latest literature and ideas into box of primatology; emphasis upon either behavioral and cognitive mechanisms.
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Extra info for Behavioral Flexibility in Primates: Causes and Consequences (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects)
Fitness as a “Fixed Budget” of Time and Energy Generating Signatures of Primate Behavior: The Temporal Component Tolkamp et al. , subordinates) might exert a signiﬁcant degree of control over the timing and duration of these events ( Johnstone and Bshary, 2002; Jones, 1997a, 2002a). Deriving their formulations from aging theory whereby oxidative metabolism is limiting (“metabolic time”), Tolkamp et al. (2002) view behaviors as response sets designed to maximize beneﬁts per unit of “metabolic time” expended.
Deriving their formulations from aging theory whereby oxidative metabolism is limiting (“metabolic time”), Tolkamp et al. (2002) view behaviors as response sets designed to maximize beneﬁts per unit of “metabolic time” expended. ’s (2002) analysis is of particular interest, the idea that since time may be deﬁned as a limiting resource, time like energy, then, becomes a resource for which individuals compete. , 2002; also see Barrett and Henzi, 2002), individuals may behave so as to deplete others’ store of time and to minimize error, unpredictability, uncertainty, and risk in their own allocation of time.
This prediction is consistent with what is known of mantled howler genotypes and behavior at Hacienda la Pac´ıﬁca, Costa Rica (Malmgren, 1979; Jones 1997b, 1999a, 2000). Despite a highly monomorphic genotype, the behavioral ﬂexibility of mantled howlers (and other members of the genus Alouatta) is legendary (Crockett and Eisenberg, 1987; Jones, 1980, 1995b, 1999a, 2000; Crockett, 1998; Silver and Marsh, 2003; Bicca-Marques, INTRODUCTION TO INTRAINDIVIDUAL VARIATION OF PRIMATE BEHAVIOR 2003; Wang and Milton, 2003).