Archaeology and Society by Grahame Clark

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By Grahame Clark

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1ctor (feitor), who derived his legitimacy (and also his remuneration) not fi'om tile merchant commllluty in which he was resident, but from an external state authority. One of the earliest Portuguese feitorias whose history we can trace in detail was located in tile city of Bruges. This factory remained in Bruges until the late fifteenth century, eventually shifting to Antwerp in 1498 (the year of Vas co da Gama's arrival in India) after a decade of unstable existence due to local political turmoil.

Inter alia, for tile passage of time; thus, one ought not anachronistically to demand from empires of tile centuries before tile Common Era tile same tilat one does from early modern empires, for instance. But, equally, I would propose that even within a synchronic sample, such as one from the early modern period, tile notion of "empire" be nuanced somewhat. In the period between 1400 CE and 1750, some clear candidates exist for the status of empire. Amongst these are the Ottomans, tile Mughals in South Asia, the Mings and Qings in China, tile Spaniards (or tile Spanish Habsburgs) after about 1520, tile British and tile French in tile eighteenth century and later.

2). -' Wc should not imagine that this history was contlict-ti'Ce, and in point of fact the conflict was not limited to that between Christians and Muslims (as it was in late-fitieenth- and early-sixteenth-century Iberia and North Afl·ica). 2. CJ/lS, GOfl. were being obliged to con/(lI'Ill to rites and standards set by Rome, and implemented through the Portuguese jladl'oado. 2 shows, there is a broad correlation between the great centers of the official prcscncc (such as Goa, Malabar, and Sri Lanka), and thc missionary prescnce.

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