A History of Pergamum: Beyond Hellenistic Kingship by Richard Evans

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By Richard Evans

The country of Pergamum emerged from the nice interval of instability which the dying of Alexander the nice. Over the subsequent century Pergamum used to be to develop into one of many wealthiest states within the japanese Mediterranean. The nation of Pergamum was once included into the Roman Empire among 133/129 BCE and it will definitely grew to become Rome's wealthiest province. the complete of Asia Minor suffered within the civil wars which ended the Roman Republic, and Pergamum didn't get away the exactions demanded of the Greek towns by means of Pompey, Caesar and Antony. within the next peace, ushered in by way of Augustus, Pergamum regained its prosperity and have become one of many cultural centres of the Roman Empire. Its ruling dynasty - the Attalids - have been buyers of the humanities and whereas in energy have been accountable for the outstanding embellishment in their capital at Pergamum. different extra old towns reminiscent of Ephesus and Miletus additionally benefited from their govt. This quantity surveys Pergamum's historical past from the past due 3rd Century BCE to the second one Century CE.

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The significance of the victory at Myonessus cannot be overemphasized, for it really meant that Antiochus’ imperialist ambitions were at an end. Without control of the sea, he could not hold the Hellespont. He also panicked and abandoned his European base at Lysimacheia, and retreated all the way back to Sardis even before the Roman army, now commanded by the consul L. 20 Antiochus had not only given up Lysimacheia with all its supplies to the Romans without a fight, but also his fortresses at Sestos and Abydos, the usual crossing point for armies to and from Asia.

However, when Asidates successfully withstood an assault on the first night with his own household, in the morning help arrived in the form of a fellow Persian, Itamenes, with unspecified numbers, but eighty cavalry from Comana, and about eight hundred peltasts (probably locally recruited peasants) from Parthenion and Apollonia. The Greeks now appear to have been so heavily outnumbered that they had to retreat but, says the author, in an orderly fashion with a great deal of plunder. The following night the Greeks went out again in much larger numbers and captured Assidates and his family near Parthenion, having, it seems, this time been deserted by his allies who do not appear to have allowed him entry into their town, while the Greeks probably had additional support perhaps from Gongylus.

The local community and its garrison, presumably including its king, who later propaganda maintained was a vigorous and successful general (but clearly not on this occasion), was not at all keen to engage with the enemy, but the Achaean commander led a number of successful sorties with his own troops. He also worsted Seleucus’ cavalry on at least one occasion and, in so doing, forced those besieging not only away from the vicinity of Pergamum but from its entire territory. About this time Seleucus, son of Antiochus, invaded Eumenes’ kingdom and besieged Pergamum.

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