By Bunge M.

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**Example text**

Firstly, these projectiles are themselves extended objects. Therefore, the cross-section reﬂects not only the structure of the target, but also that of the projectile. Secondly, the nuclear forces between the projectile and the target are complex and not well understood. Electron scattering is particularly valuable for investigating small objects. As far as we know electrons are point-like objects without any internal structure. The interactions between an electron and a nucleus, nucleon or quark take place via the exchange of a virtual photon — this may be very accurately calculated inside quantum electrodynamics (QED).

4. Mass formula Isaac Asimov in his novel The Gods Themselves describes a universe where the 186 stablest nuclide with A = 186 is not 186 74 W but rather 94 Pu. This is claimed to be a consequence of the ratio of the strengths of the strong and electromagnetic interactions being diﬀerent to that in our universe. Assume that only the electromagnetic coupling constant α diﬀers and that both the strong interaction and the nucleon masses are unchanged. How large must α be in order that 186 82 Pb, 186 186 88 Ra and 94 Pu are stable?

Some odd-odd nuclei can undergo both β − -decay and β + -decay. Well-known examples of this are 40 19 K (Fig. 4) and 64 Cu. 29 Electron capture. Another possible decay process is the capture of an electron from the cloud surrounding the atom. There is a ﬁnite probability of ﬁnding such an electron inside the nucleus. In such circumstances it can combine with a proton to form a neutron and a neutrino in the following way: p + e− → n + νe . 11) This reaction occurs mainly in heavy nuclei where the nuclear radii are larger and the electronic orbits are more compact.