By John M. Last
Dictionary making by no means ends simply because languages are consistently altering. universal through the global, this e-book will proceed to function the normal English-language dictionary of epidemiology in its Fourth variation. It covers all of the universal phrases utilized in epidemiology and plenty of from similar fields resembling biostatistics, infectious affliction keep watch over, well-being promoting, genetics, scientific epidemiology, healthiness economics, and clinical ethics. The definitions are transparent and concise, yet there's area for a few short essays and discussions of the provenance of vital phrases. subsidized by way of the foreign Epidemiological organization, the dictionary represents the consensus of epidemiologists in lots of diversified nations. all of the definitions have been reviewed again and again through a world community of participants from each significant department of epidemiology. they're authoritative with no being authoritarian. The Fourth version includes good over one hundred fifty new entries and giant revisions of in regards to the related variety of definitions, plus a dozen new illustrations. the various new phrases relate to equipment utilized in environmental and scientific epidemiology.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edition
Although epidemiologists are usually most interested in asymmetrical statements that have direction, the symmetrical equation can be useful. For instance, prevalence can be expressed in terms of incidence and duration in the simple approximation. P = I X D. If two of these three elements are known, the third can be derived. See also SYMMETRICAL RELATIONSHIP. , nonrandom mating. ASYMMETRICAL ASSOCIATION See ASSOCIATION, ASYMMETRICAL. ASYMPTOTIC Pertaining to a limiting value, for example, of a dependent variable, when the independent variable approaches zero or infinity.
Four conditions under which independent variable X may cause Y: 1. 2. 3. 4. variable X mav cause Y Xis Xis necessary sufficient + + + + — — 1. Xis necessary and sufficient to cause Y. Both Xand Fare always present together, and nothing but Xis needed to cause Y; X—»F. For example, the measles virus is necessary to cause measles in an unimmunized individual or population. 2. Xis necessary but not sufficient to cause Y. Xmust be present when Fis present, but Y is not always present when Xis. Some additional factor(s) must also be present; Xand Z—»F.
In science, loosely, the arithmetic mean. In everyday speech, ordinary, usual, or normal. In Anglo-Saxon, the word meant a day's work given to the feudal lord. Kendall and Buckland's Dictionary of Statistical Terms (4th ed, 1982) has this to say: "A familiar but elusive concept. Generally an 'average' value purports to represent or to summarize the relevant features of a set of values; and in this sense the term would include the median and the mode. , in the case of the arithmetic or geometric means.