By M. Bacon
This e-book introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of analyzing 3-D seismic info. the subjects it covers comprise simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written by way of expert geophysicists with decades of operating event within the oil undefined, the e-book could be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional info for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
The applicationofnoise suppression is much moresuccessfulwith 3-D datathan2-D owing to theextradimension,datavolumeand spatialconsistency for thealgorithmto work with. This allowsthe filtersto adaptto relativelysuddenchangesin reflectordip while retainingsufficientdatato distinguish 52 - dataacquisition andprocessing 3-0seismic signal from random noise. Again methodsthat attempt to interpolate frequencies beyond the standardaliasing criterion are employed since no benefit would be gained otherwise.
Bin c already has a far offset trace and no bin expansion is required. The red trace will end up being used by both bin A and bin D After binning, the traces are treated as though they came from the centre of the bin though it is normal to retain and use the absolute offset information for later processing furthest offsets may be non-uniformly distributed with somebins having two or more traceswith a similar offset while othershavenone. lf no ttacewithin a certain offset rangeis found within the original bin, then a trace within the extendedbin is usedasthough it falls in the original bin.
Residualscaling Fig. 21 Typical 3-D processingsequence. that was createdby the sourceand convertsit to a more compactform. Sucha sourcesignalis undesirablesinceevery reflectionwould be followed by a smallerrepetitionof itself. Designatureremoves the secondpeak,giving the inputwaveleta morecompactfom. A decisionneedsto be A zero-phase madeat this pointwhetherthe outputshouldbe zero-or minimum-phase. It is certainlydesirableto usezero-phase 37 - 3-Ddataprocessing Fig. Also shown are zero-phase waveletsthat have had their phasesrotatedby 45' and 90'; the latter developsan antisymmetic 1blm.